History of the Arabian horse of Spanish pure lines

Almost six thousand years Ago, the Warriors of the Iberian Peninsula were instituted as outstanding horses. It Is well documented that in historical times the Iberian Cavalry had gained fame as an intrepid and effective adversary, owing much of its success to its fine mounts.The type of clashes then consisted of individual loads of horses, with quick departures, stops and pirouettes, followed by retractions and new attacks. A way of riding that was possible thanks to the use of very agile horses, with braked mouths and pointed stirrups.

In the year 711 A.D. the Arabs invaded the Iberian Peninsula, at that time under the domain Visigoth, and occupied it until the end of the 15TH century. Much has been written about the influence of the Berber and Arabian horses on the Iberian horses during the occupation.It Is possible that of the Arabs ' own confidence in the quality of their war mares arose the status of the mare. The mares are subject to great respect in the programs of Arab breeding in Spain, and in general in Europe. More emphasis Is placed on them and on maternal families (the last mare at the end of the pedigree) compared to the consideration given to the Sires and the paternal line in the United States. Originally all the breeding in Spain was in the hands of the royal family and the nobility. Once the different kingdoms joined after several wars and marriages, finally a central government was created, and the State took over the selection and improvement of the equine hut..
Originalmente toda la cría en España estaba en manos de la familia real y la nobleza. Una vez que los distintos reinos se unieron después de varias guerras y casamientos, finalmente se creó un gobierno central, y el Estado se hizo cargo de la selección y mejora de la cabaña equina. 

Compulsory military service began in the years 1700, with a minimum of eight years. This often led to lifelong careers within the ministry, with several promotions. The officers were not only linked to their mounts; Their lives depended on them. Every Horse was considered as a tool of war, and its upbringing passed to the Defense Department. The Iberian Horse of War and its crosses became famous throughout Europe during the Middle Ages. He Was big, imposing and agile. As they were mixing lines of tyre, it turned into a horse too heavy to travel distances or to run. They developed massive and acarneradas heads, heavy and thick necks and broad and powerful groups.They Showed a terrifying spectacle that empavorecíaed the villains of the European villages. However, by developing the firearms and changing the armors by lighter protections, such horses were too heavy and slow to resist the Warriors mounted on desert horses bred in the Orient, much more Light and fast.

Towards 1847 the young queen of 16 years Isabel II was decanted by a more agile and better temperament mount. He concentrated on the breeding of Arab thoroughbreds, keeping the documents of his private livestock. It Sent to the desert a commission in charge of seeking the best cattle, in order to recover and to improve the equine population in decline. Thus, in 1847 began the first Record and Spanish Genealogical Book, which continues to exist today and is the oldest register of Arabian hornees. The son of the Queen, King Alfonso XII, continued this trend and imported in 1884 and 1885 Arabs of the best blood from France. In 1893 A Royal decree laid the foundations for the breeding of Arabian horses by the State, establishing the Military Stud Farm in Moratalla, Córdoba. Few Thoroughbreds were produced from these early imports, as the intention was to improve the Iberian cross-blood War Horse, as well as the equine hut in Spain.

The bases of the modern breeding

In 1904 began the serious breeding of the Arabian thoroughbred by the Military Stud, with several purchase commissions (1905-1908) in Mesopotamia, Syria and the Arab Desert, to acquire the most select specimens. According to the newspaper that led Captain Luis Azpeitia de Moros in 1905, "In search of the Arabian horse", was sought refinement, good mounts, a minimum elevation of 152 cm, and an age limit of 8 or 10 years. Boat trips were long and stressful, so the horses had to be resistant. They peeked hundreds of horses but only bought twenty-three heads. The Purchase commission sent to Poland in 1906 also brought a similar number.

However, imports of 1908 and 1912 in the desert and Poland were the most significant for the current lines. The types that were chosen preferably were the Hamdani Simri, highlighted by His Excellency as horse riding and his temper calmed, and the type of ' Klawi, outstanding for its refinement, beauty and speed. There were Also several Managhi Sbeyli, Koheilan Ad ́jouz, Koheilan Rodan and some offspring of a Dahman stallion, in particular the horse Ursus of Poloni.

A closed genetic acquis

For Almost a hundred years thereafter, few bloodlines have been added to the genetic heritage. The animals imported between 1926 and 1930 from England by private breeder Cristóbal Colón de Aguilera, XV Duque de Veragua, Had a great impact. It Also acquired in 1935 and 1936 all the mares of the heirs of the Marquis de Domeq.The Duke of Veragua was killed during the Spanish Civil War, in November 1936, without leaving direct heirs. Its breeding was mainly from the Crabbet stud farm, including five daughters of Skowronek, and enjoyed such renown that it was confiscated by the army in order to preserve it. The Stallion Razad was unfortunately among the horses killed, but all the rest were sent to the farm of the stud in Moratalla in Córdoba. Almost all the mares were marked with fire and therefore identified. Others, along with the major fillies, were identified as thoroughbreds Arabs of Veragua; But the loss of the papers necessitated renaming, for which the prefix "Vera" was used. These were kept by the army. And The youngest fillings were sold, mainly to the niece of the Duke, the Marquise de Avella, whose breeding program still survives.

Then and now, the Military Stud holds a herd of 20 to 30 mares and sells the surplus to private breeders. It Has a hundred Arab stallions that are destined annually to the various deposits of the country for the use of the breeders and the improvement of the local hut, for a symbolic price. Purebred products are duly measured, identified, registered and qualified to be included in a register of Colts. At Four years these products are registered in the main Genealogical Book. Foals of mares of quality or half Arabs obtain papers of half-Arabs, but they are not included in the Spanish Genealogical Book. ALL breeding stalls must be certified to be used as such, and are designated as stallions for public or private use. 

Although the number of Arabs enrolled has increased from 328 in the 1960s to almost 13000 today (2006), in the United States the population of Spanish-line Arabs and their crosses with other lines of Arabs represent less than 1% of the total population of c Arab. Because of its scarcity and limited number this line of blood is used especially for the breeding. Few of these horses take part in contests, but when they present themselves to them, the Spanish Arabs and their.

In 1934 they were introduced in the USA with the five imports of Edna and James Draper, which included the founding mares * Meca and * Memphis. Then There were no remarkable additions to Charles Steen's imports in 1965. These consisted of twenty-five Spanish Arabs who arrived in the United States, some in utero as * Barich of Washoe, outstanding stallion that left 104 Spanish foals and 446 products with no less than twenty-seven national trophies. Towards 1975 imports from Spain were facilitated thanks to the recognition of the Veragua lines in the studbook. At the end of the 70, and in the 80, more imports took place, many of which were used for crossing lines.

Worldwide Influence

Are familiar to breeders from around the world many names like those of the prominent stallions * AN Malik and * Barich of Washoe, the three-time national champion Abha Hamir, the stud 3 ⁄ 4 Spanish Beautiful CA that was triple National champion in Western pleasure, and half Spanish stallions * The Shaklan and Magnum Psyche. As imported horses have been disappearing in the past, fresh blood has been sought and the new millennium has recommenced imports. On the occasion of its closed genetic acquis and the marked inbreeding up to 1970, the Arabian Horse of Spanish lines has maintained a characteristic own type. In breeder terminology, they are said to produce in a frank way. From 1970 in Spain external lines were imported, and that is why the term Pure Spanish (N. D T. Classical or Straight is also used) is used to designate all pure Arab race whose ascendants before 1970 are all enrolled in the Genealogical Book of Spain. That is Why the four grandparents trace their pedigree all the lines to the founding horses of the Spanish Studbook, whose original Arabic pedigrees are preserved in the "Golden Books" in Madrid. Since the Year 2007 AECCA (the Spanish Association of Arab Horse Breeders) is the sole authority that registers the Arabian horses in Spain. Together with AECCA, its affiliated member OSAS (the Spanish Arabian Horse Society) and the recent CALPE (Arabian Horses of Spanish Pure Lines) intend to promote the pure Spanish lines of Arabian horses and their crosses. This effort together with the selective breeding by the Military Stud of Spain and the private breeders, have made of Spanish Arabic an extremely versatile and athletic horse, with a solicitous and friendly character. With a soft topline and arched neck, notable for its large dark eyes, bone density, short and sturdy loin, high insertion of the tail and great aptitude for dressage. The genetic impact of such a closed genetic heritage has marked all lines crossing. The Spanish Arabs and their crosses have won countless championships throughout North and South America, Europe and the middle East. This Line has dedicated owners and fans across the globe. By joining them you can experience the excellence of the Spanish Arabian horse for its unique temperament, elegance and the quality of its performance.

Escrito por Lisa Goodwin-Campiglio
Traducido por Carmen R. Abáigar